Joe MacDonald/Urban A&O is one of a handful of architecture and design firms that operate within the sophisticated computer design environment of parametric modeling. The firm employs the powerful tools of CATIA-based software and digital fabrication processes to produce sculptural and geometrically complex forms and environments. The resulting innovative work tests the limits of material and space through the development of radically new spatial geometries with strong conceptual underpinnings. The philosophy of the firm’s work encompasses four operating principals: 1) material exploration; 2) the use of emerging technologies to design and fabricate form; 3) multi-disciplinary collaboration; and 5) the cultivation of social interaction and education through design within the public realm. Based in New York City, Urban A&O works throughout the United States and internationally.